Early each year, the President proposes for Congress’ consideration a budget to run the federal government for the fiscal year beginning the following October 1. During the ensuing months, Congress considers and adopts appropriations legislation for each federal agency, including the Environmental Protection Agency. Included in EPA's appropriations are grants for state and local air pollution control agencies to carry out their responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. These grants are an essential source of funding for state and local agency programs. The grants are provided under two provisions of the Clean Air Act: Sections 103 and 105. In recent years, these grants have approximated $200 million annually. Section 105, which is designed to support the implementation of programs to prevent and control air pollution and address primary (health) and secondary (welfare) ambient air quality standards, authorizes the federal government to provide grants equaling up to 60 percent of the cost of state and local programs, while state and local agencies must provide a 40-percent match. In practice, the federal share represents approximately 25 percent of total state/local air budgets, while state and local governments provide 75 percent. Section 103 authorizes the federal government to provide grants to conduct and promote the coordination and acceleration of research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, surveys, and studies relating to the causes, effects (including health and welfare effects), extent, prevention, and control of air pollution. Typically Section 103 has been used for specialized air monitoring programs.