Controlling the content and properties of transportation fuels can offer great benefits in terms of protecting public health and the environment, particularly when cleaner fuels are combined with vehicle and engine emission standards. In 1974, EPA put in place a program to gradually reduce lead in gasoline. Lead in gasoline has been banned entirely since 1996. Reducing and eliminating the lead content of gasoline not only resulted in lower direct lead emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles but also allowed the use of advanced technologies, like catalytic converters, to control other kinds of pollutants in vehicle exhaust. Other fuel programs that have been adopted over the years include ones that set volatility standards (i.e., Reid Vapor Pressure) that decrease evaporative emissions of gasoline in summer months when ozone (smog) levels are typically highest; require increased gasoline oxygen content in certain areas of the country to help reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the wintertime; reduce ozone precursor and toxic air pollutant emissions through a Reformulated Gasoline Program; and control fuel parameters that have an impact on emissions of toxic air pollutants including benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein. More recent advances in cleaning up fuels include reducing sulfur levels in gasoline and diesel fuels used in cars, trucks, construction and agriculture equipment and ocean-going vessels. Reducing sulfur in fuel not only reduces direct sulfur emissions but also enables the use of advanced emission control technologies that cut other harmful emissions. Another recent program establishes progressively more stringent requirements for the use of renewable fuels, which reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as our nation’s dependence on imported oil.